Childrens Employment Commission 1842

The following extracts are from the report by R F Franks to the Children's Employment Commission on the East of Scotland District which was published in 1842.

Arniston Colliery

-in Stobhill, parish of Cockpen (Trustees of Robert Dundas, Esq., of Arniston)

No.86. Mr. Alexander Maxton:-
I have had the control of Arniston works eight years for the trustees of Robert Dundas, Esq., the present laird and our usual operations must not be calculated from the present numbers we employ, owing to a drowning of our principal mine, which will soon be in operation, as we have new and increased power in our machinery.

The number we at present employ is under 100 males, adults and lads, the few boys who are wrought were allowed to their parents who stood in need of their assistance at the time of our new regulations coming into operation.

The new regulations were made to exclude females entirely from our mines and boys until educated and strong enough to be useful below.

The two primary evils in many Scotch collieries are:- 1st. The employment of women of any age underground. 2nd. The taking to the mines young boys. The effects of the first are want of comfortable homes, the females being absent all day and a certain demoralising effect invariably produced by women subjected to labour in a manner quite unsuited to their sex. The effects of the second are the total neglect of ordinary education and from the extreme youth of the boys (many under 8 years of age) their bodies are quite unable to stand coal working without injuring in some degree their constitutions.

Women ought therefore be entirely disused underground, and no boys ought to be permitted to go below under 12 years of age be able to read and write to the satisfaction of the managers &c.; these have been the rules in this colliery for some time past and already the good effects are being felt; the houses of the workmen are clean and comfortable, the children well looked after by their mothers, the young women are going out to service, and whole workpeople have a better moral aspect.

There is a large and comfortable school with an efficient teacher for the young, and all workmen are obliged to send those capable of going for their education there; there is also an infant-school with an efficient female teacher; these schools are partially endowed by the General Assembly and by subscription; the fees very moderate and under the usual rate of the country.

The abolishing of females working in mines and regulating the age at which boys should begin working, and sound moral and religious education, must not be overlooked.

It is quite practicable to exclude bad air from the majority of pits; the expense is a little at first but the gain of time is more than compensatory.

Colliers prior to our regulations migrated in proportion one-fourth, now not one-tenth.

No.87. Andrew Young, 11 years of age, coal-putter:-
Worked below two years: draws with the ropes and chains: slype first to the main-road and then pull to the pit bottom on the rail-roads; sometimes I have to slype 100 to 300 fathoms, according to the rooms the men work in: the wall is far away from level road.

We draws as the horses do, only we have no wheels to the slypes, therefore the work is very sore. Boys frequently fall under the slypes and get much injured.

When we descend a brae the practice is to hang on in front, and other laddie to pull behind; but the baskets holding 5cwt., we are frequently overpowered.

We work from four in morning till five and six at night and when on night-work we yoke [commence] at four afternoon and return six and seven next morning: we get nothing below but a piece of oatcake: it is not customary to take flesh or beer.

I go to night-school for one or two hours: can read and doing something at writing.

[Reads well and has a good recollection of the Scripture passages that he has been taught, but very little knowledge of what they mean.]

[SLYPES and SLYPING - Slypes are wood framed boxes curved and shod with iron at the bottoms, which hold from 2 1/4cwt. to 5 1/4cwt. of coal, depending in size upon the width of seams through which they are dragged. Slyping is dragging with harness over the shoulders and back and where the seams are narrow and the roofs low, the lads and lasses drag on all-fours, as the boy justly said, "like horses." Slypes are used in the parts of mines where rails are not laid, the dip and rise preventing, or where the floors are soft from wall faces to main roads.]

No.88. Thomas Hynd, 49 years of age, coal-hewer:-
I have wrought on Arniston coal 10 years and been working below 40 years. Wife did work below till Mr. Dundas excluded the women. When Mr. Maxton first issued the order, many men and families left; but many have returned, for they find now the roads are improved, and the output not limited: they can earn as much money and get better homes. Many of the females have gone to service and prefer it; and now they know the advantage, fully approve the rules.

No.89. William Hunter, mining oversman, Arniston Colliery:-
I have been 20 years in the works of Robert Dundas, Esq. and had much experience in the manner of drawing coal, as well as the habits and practices of the collier people.

Until the last eight months women and lassies were wrought below in these works, when Mr. Alexander Maxton, our manager, issued an order to exclude them from going below, having some months prior given intimation of the same.

In addition to the exclusion of females, no boys will hereafter be permitted to be wrought under 12 years of age and not then, unless they are qualified in the reading and writing: they require to be examined prior to going below.

Boys of 14 years of age perform their duties with greater care and quickness.

The improved mode of railing roads and ventilating economises time, and men now find they have no one to depend on but themselves: go more regularly to work, and take nearly as much money with one or two boys as when the whole family were below.

In fact, women always did the lifting or heavy part of the work, and neither they nor the children were treated like human beings, nor are they where they are employed. Females submit to work in places when no man or even lad could be got to labour in: they work in bad roads, up to their knees in water, in a posture nearly double: they are below till last hour of pregnancy: they have swelled haunches and ancles and are prematurely brought to the grave or, what is worse, lingering existence.

Many of the daughters of the miners are now at respectable service. I have two who are in families at Leith and who are much delighted with the change.

No.90. Alexander Farmer, 16 years old, coal-hewer:-
I hew coal and put: the work is guid sair at times; not so much as formerly: works on grandfather's account, as mother died some years ago of cholera and father was killed in the Engine Pit five years since.

I have one brother who works below, he is 12 years old and one sister nine years of age whom grandfather keeps. We all read and write; have been constantly at the Sabbath evening examinations.

I work 12 and sometimes 13 hours; never less than 10: after work I change and look about.

[Is well acquainted with Scripture and geography of own country; not very perfect in counting.]

No.91. Andrew Young, 63 years of age, collier:-
I am about the eldest collier at the Arniston works, and have wrought below more than half a century.

When I first worked on my own account my wife and self could earn 25s. per week, out of which had to pay our tools and creels, which would cost 3s.

There is a wonderful change in prices of the meal, the pease meal and the butcher meat: the whole buck or sheep could have been bought when I first wrought for 5s., and flesh was never corved [weighed]: a quarter of good mutton 1s. 10d. and the seven-gill bottle of whisky for 9d.: colliers rarely drink beer.

Women used to suffer much when they worked in low seams of coal; my wife was laid idle for two years from a strain from work, which brought on miscarriage.

Vogrie Colliery, parish of Borthwick.

- (Mr. James Lees, Loquehariot Mains, Leaseholder.)

No.92. John Thomson, mining oversman, Vogrie Colliery:-
I have superintended the Vogrie Mines for 11 years: we employ about 50 to 60 collies at present, males and females.

Colliers are very changeable about this quarter; one-half constantly on the rove, consequently the children are rarely educated; they make keeping the bairns out of harm's way an excuse for taken them down so early.

Few colliers work more than three days a-week in this neighbourhood, and the more money they earn the less they work.

The women and children are forced to go down by the husbands and labour sorely.

Now the roads are railed the labour is no so severe.

I have three daughters who work with their brother below; one of them is married and is at present pregnant with the second child: it is a common practice here for women to work till confined.

No.93. James Logan, 11 or 12 years old, coal-putter:-
I gang down at four in the morning with father and mother, two sisters and brother; we take some bread with us, and I have porridge when I get back: we all work till four or five at night: sometimes I change myself: little sister minds the house: I can't read: father signed the big paper: his name is Thomas: he stays away on Monday and Tuesday when he has no will to work: I never was more than a quarter at school: how should I know who made the world; I can't say my letters.

No.94. Nancy Morrison, 17 years of age, coal-putter:-
Began to work before 11 years of age: pulls with draw ropes and chain: very difficult at parts, as roads are not all railed and some water in the pit.

Works with mother and brother: father is clean gone in the breath; he is 43 years of age, and not been down for two years: when at full work we cannot earn more than 14s. a-week.

I was taught the reading, but never was at the writing.

[Reads very well; knows very little Scripture history, and only seven questions in Catechism, those very imperfectly.]

No.95. Katherine Logan, 16 years old, coal-putter:-
Began to work at coal carrying more than five years since: works in harness now: draws backwards with face to tubs: the ropes and chains go under my pit clothes: it is o'esair work, especially where we crawl.

Father works occasionally, not often, as he is bad in the breath.

[Reads very badly, and very destitute of the knowledge of common facts: knows little of Scripture: appears to have been much neglected: very weak and emaciated.]

No.96. George M'Culloch, aged 37 years, coal-miner:-
Suffers much from bad breath, as do all men in this quarter; it soon reaches them, as the children are taken down early. I do very little now: the seams are narrow and the roads not very good: am dependant on my children.

Edgehead Colliery, parish of Cranston.

- (Messrs. Williamson and Company, Leaseholders.)

No.97. Archibald Muckle, 12 years old, coal-hewer:-
Began to work at seven years of age: don't like to work so long hours. I go down at four in the morning, and don't come up till six and seven at night: it is very sair work and am obliged to lie on my side, or stoop, all the time, as the seam is only 24 to 26 inches high.

There is much bad air below, and when it rises in our room we shift and gang to some other part and leave when the pit is full, as it stops our breath.

I take bread below: never get porridge: we canna drink the pit water, as it is na guid: get flesh three times a-week.

The pit is very wet, and am compelled to shift mysel' when home on that account.

Never been to day-school since down go to the night as often as the labour will allow: am so sore fatigued

[Can read very well, and repeats the verses of Psalms and Testament with great facility: has no knowledge of their meaning.]

No.98. Robert Dickson, 12 years old, coal-filler:-
I cast over the coals when they are slyped from the wall face into the tubs; sometimes I push the tubs. I do not wear harness; sister does: she runs backwards and I push: there are many braes and we put a pin in the wheel to prevent them running o'erfast on the rails.

Father would not have sent me below so soon had he not been bad in the breath.

I have been to the night-school five years, and go now; am taught the reading, writing, and accounting in the tables. Mother always sends me porridge: I never work less than 12 or 14 hours.

[Very sickly, but intelligent; reads well, and writes distinctly knows his questions in Catechism very well.]

No.99. Elizabeth Meek, 12 years old, coal-putter:-
I know that my age is 12 years, as Mr. Welch, the minister, wrote it in father's Bible.

I work from six in morning till five and six at night; frequently all night; never less than 12 hours unless we are driven out by bad air.

I am too sair gone to be wrought at the night-school and father would not pay for me even if I were not.

I would not have gone into the pit but was made to do so by father and step-mother.

I cast over the coals, and run with them to the pit bottom: have no holidays: father does not work on Mondays and Tuesdays: had typhus and so had the family two years since, when working on the Marquis's work at East Houses.

I can read, never was taught the writing: am trying to copy my brother's copy-book and can shape some of the letters.

[Reads well; can shape many letters in her first and second name: repeats the Scripture and Psalms: is very intelligent, but very delicate in appearance.]

No.100. David Hynde, 9 years old, coal-putter and hewer:-
Began to work in the bowels of the earth nine months since at this place, and was three years at Ormiston; was taken down by father and mother, who work below and so does sister, who is 10 years past.

Never got hurt below: gets porridge when mother and sister come down: they come two hours sometimes four hours after father and I.

I can read and am learning the write, not counting yet: there are two bawbees in one 1d.; don't know how many in a shilling. I know many of the questions, and who made me; it was God: I don't know where he is: heaven is the sky: knows some of Commandments, can't say how many there are.

No.101. Ann Crookston, 10 years old, coal-filler:-
I gang at three in the morning, and come up with brother at five at night: mother brings porridge when she comes hersel' to work: father is off work and has been three months, with bad breath.

I cast over the coal from my brother and mother takes away: sometimes my brother draws his work with ropes and chains.

I cannot read: have been occasionally to night-school and brother is trying to do the letters: have three brothers and one sister; only one at the school.

[Very sickly and has no knowledge of the alphabet, save the first five or six letters.]

No.102. Elizabeth Dickson, 12 years old, draws coals:-
I draw with the ropes and chain and often fall and get crushed as the hurly comes down the brae; never off work long from the hurts.

I am wrought with two brothers and two sisters below: we takes pieces of bread, and get nothing more till work is done: am never wrought less than 12 and 14 hours: work about: we work all night.

Many of the lassies get crushed and lose their fingers: have often lost my finger nails.

Always change my pit clothes when home, am obliged to do, for they are so wet.

I bend nearly double while at work, as all the roads are very low.

I can read a little; not learned much, as have been three years below, and not at school since.

Father does not work now; he was caught in the bad air and we hurled him out in a tub, since which [six months] we have worked for him.

[Reads very badly, and much neglected.]

No.103. David Woddell, 11 years old, picks and draws:-
I work 14 and 15 hours, and work every day except Monday, when I stay up because father does; sister and I work, and we are very sore wrought just now, as we have night and day work. Have not been to school for two months in consequence of the hard work.

Father cannot labour much, as he is nearly done in the breath; I don't know how old he is. Mother is clean done for; she can hardly breathe and has not worked for some years. Do not go often to kirk or sabbath-school.

[Can read well and write fairly his own name; very little knowledge of scripture or questions in catechism.]

No.104. John Blyth, Mining Overseer, Edgehead Colliery:-
I have been underground overseer in these mines eight years, and have witnessed with regret the early age colliers take their children below ground.

The masters have no control over the colliers; or rather, they never interfere with the customs of colliers themselves.

Children of seven and eight years of age are repeatedly taken below and then all hope of instruction ends.

We have no school belonging to the works; in the village of Chester Hall, some half-mile away, there is a night-school, but the children do not regularly attend, owing to their parents' neglect, or probably from being sometimes overworked.

The tubs drawn by children do not hold more than 2 1/4 cwt., for the roads are very low and the braes steep.

Must acknowledge that good stout lads could adapt themselves to the work and do it better than very young children, who only cause confusion.

Men marry very young where women work in pits and frequently are laid aside early from bad breath.

Colliers who are well instructed work regularly and are much more to be depended on.

Preston-Hall Colliery

-parish of Cranston. - (Mr. William Lindsay, Leaseholder.)

No.105. Joseph Davison, 17 years old, coal-hewer:-
Began to work at 10 years of age; not been to any school since; worked always at the Haugh Lyn and Preston-hall collieries.

I could read a bit, but have forgotten all but the letters.

I get 20d. a-day when on full work, but the work is not regular here, as much bad air is in the pit and there is much water below; the women work in it over their ancles.

At all times the air is foul but not what may be called the bad air; the lamps never burn bright. The seam is only 24 inches, and the roads 3 feet high; some parts are walled.

[Very ignorant; scarcely knows a letter.]

No.106, David Smith, 12 years old, draws coal:-
Draws in harness; it is very horrible sore work. I have been in the mines five years; do not like it; would like day-light work better, drawing is so sair. I can read some, and commenced to make strokes on the paper at night-school last week.

I draw on the road, where the women are at work; it is very drappie and their clothes get gai wet.

Often gets hurt; had my face cut open by a stone from roof; off idle a long time with it; last week was laid aside by injury received from a pick entering my arm.

Works for father, who has three sons below and daughter; some of them read, none write. I go to kirk when I have clothes, but know very little about it; suppose I shall die; don't know where people go to; I know they are buried. Don't know whether father can read.

No.107. Jane Johnson, age 29, draws coal:-
I was 7 1/2 years of age when my uncle first yoked me to the work, as father and mother were dead; it was at Sherriff-hall and I carried coal on my back; I could carry 2cwt. When 15 years of age but I now feel the weakness upon me from the strains.

I have been married near 10 years, and had 4 children; have usually wrought till within one or two days of the children's birth. Many women lose their strength early from overwork, and get injured in their backs and legs; was crushed by a stone some time since and forced to lose one of my fingers.

I cannot read; never was taught; my three children, girls of the age of 8, 5, and 2 years, I leave at home; a wench comes to see after them and take them to the school. None know how to read at present.

No.108. William Walkinshaw, Mining Overseer, Preston-hall Colliery:-
The colliers in this part employ women and girls to cheapen the labour; and also women work in places where no man could be induced to labour.

The works are frequently stopped here, from the badness of the roofs, which frequently drop and fill the roads.

The seams are 26 and 27 inches thick, which makes the labour very sore, and experienced colliers do not like the work, especially where main roads are not well kept. We have no school; most of the people are very poor and many touched in the breath.

No.109. Janet Selkirk, 18 years of age, draws coal:-
Begun to work at 10 years of age; did so, as hard work below had made mother blind.

I cannot read, as family expenses are heavy. Two sisters are trying at the reading; four other bairns are supported by mine and father's work.

Am obliged to like the work, as all the lassies are. It would no be possible for men to do the work we are forced to do.

Men only marry us early because we are of advantage to them.

The roads are so low and narrow that small persons only can pass

[Very destitute; has no knowledge of the letters or scripture history.]

No.110. Margaret Grant, 15 years of age, draws coal:-
I think that it is more than two years since mother brought me below; it was after father died of the bad breath. I work on mother's account and get a shilling a-day when I draw the work by myself, which I cannot always do, as the roads are more wet at whiles than others. Mother can't assist me now, as she is laid by with rheumatism from working on bad roads.

Was once at school for six months; was 12 months ago; can't go now, as mother is not to pay. I go to kirk when I have any clothes.

Cannot read. Lodges in Pathhead, half a mile from the colliery, in a small house of three rooms; one divided by the beds; 21 grown people are stopping: 10 sleep in one small room.

[Margaret Grant is a very intelligent lassie and has all the appearance of one worn down by hard work and want of food.]

Haugh Lynn Colliery

parish of Cranston. - (Messrs. Forster and Co., Leaseholders.)

No.111. Elizabeth Selkirk, 11 years old, coal-drawer:-
Works from three in the morning till four and five in the afternoon and frequently all night. The work is so sore that canna help going to sleep when waiting for the gig to draw. Father is very bad in the breath, so I am wrought with brother. I do not always change myself, as one oe'r fatigued. We have had much trouble (sickness). My work causes me to stoop double and when I draw I crawl on all-fours, like the cuddies. Was at school five weeks and distinguish one letter from another.

[Very sickly emaciated child, subject to severe pains in limbs and bowels, arising no doubt overwork and want of food. Her parents, with seven children, live in a wretched hovel at Pathhead; the room not more than 10 feet by 14: the furniture consisted of two old bedsteads, nearly destitute of covering, a few old stools and bits of broken crockery.]

No.112. James Foster, age 13 years, coal-hewer:-
I hew coal with brother, and mother pushes the work to pit bottom. We can earn altogether 8s. to 10s. a-week, when the air is good and the pit works. Work is no regular about here. Father is no able to do any work, as he is clean gone in the breath: he bides at home with seven children. Father can't get any relief from the parish; has tried for two years. I canna change myself, as one over-fatigued, as never work less than 12 hours and am no very strong just now.

[Can read but very badly; has no knowledge of scripture; very ill fed, and apparently in ill health.]

No.113. George Oliver, Mining Overman, Haugh Lynn colliery:-
Have been some years about the colliery: the seams are very low, as we are near the crop. The height of the coal varies from 14 to 19 inches. Children draw from the wall-face to the main roads, which are three feet high. The depth of the pit is only six fathoms. At times bad air is in the pit and so it is in all. Don't know that men are weaker and worse gone here than at other pits in neighbourhood - certainly not worse than Preston Hall or Edgehead. Thinks colliers bring a great deal of disease on themselves by hard drinking.

No.114. John Selkirk, 14 years old, coal-hewer:-
When work is full on I work 14 hours a-day and have done so for four years and a bit. My father takes my wages, as he is no able to work, as he is bad in breath. Most of the men here are fashed with that trouble. Foster, Miller, Blyth, and Aitkin, are all clean gone in the breath altogether; the last two are lying on the parish and get 4s. a-month; they have large families in this part. Colliers drop down very soon, and become very poor. Father has nine children and we all live and sleep in one little room. I go to kirk when I have clothes.

[Knows a little reading; cannot write any; very quick but illiterate.]

Bearing Pits, Harlaw Muir, Coaly Burn

parish of West Linton, Peebleshire.- (Rev. J. J. Beresford, Leaseholder and Heritor.)

No.115. Margaret Watson, 16 years of age, coal-bearer:
I was first taken below to carry coals when I was six years old and have never been away from the work, except a few evenings in the summer months, when some of us go to Carlops, two miles over the moor, to learn the reading: reads a little.

Most of us work from three in the morning till four and five at night. I make 20 rakes a-day, and 30 when mother bides at home. What I mean by a rake is a journey from the day-light with my wooden backit to the coal-wall, and back with my coal to the daylight, when I throw the coals on father's hill and return. [The pit is 8 1/2 fathoms deep, descended by a turnpike stair, and wall-face 100 fathoms distant from pit bottom.]

I carry 2cwt. on my back; never less than 1 1/2cwt. I know what the weight of 1cwt is, though I cannot say how many pounds there are in it.

I never was taught to sew, much more shape a dress, yet I stitch up my pit clothes.

We often have bad air below; had some a short time since, and lost brother by it: he sunk down, and I tried to draw him out, but the air stopped my breath, and I was forced to gang.

[Knows a few questions in the Child's Catechism but very destitute of any useful information.]

No.116. Margaret Leveston, 6 years old, coal-bearer:
Been down at coal-carrying six weeks; makes 10 to 14 rakes a-day; carries full 56lb of coal in a wooden backit. The work is na guid; it is so very sair. I work with sister Jesse and mother; dinna ken the time we gang; it is gai dark. Get plenty of broth and porridge, and run home and get bannock, as we live just by the pit. Never been to school; it is so far away.

[A most interesting child and perfectly beautiful. I ascertained her age to be six 24th May, 1840; she was registered at Inveresk.]

No.117. Jane Peacock Watson, age 40, coal-bearer:
I have wrought in the bowels of the earth 33 years. Have been married 23 years, and had nine children; six are alive, three died of typhus a few years since; have had two dead born; thinks they were so from the oppressive work: a vast of women have dead children and false births, which are worse, as they are no able to work after the latter.

I have always been obliged to work below till forced to go home to bear the bairn, and so have all the other women. We return as soon as able, never longer than 10 or 12 days; many less, if they are much needed.

It is only horse-work, and ruins the women; it crushes their haunches, bends their ankles and makes them old women at 40.

Women so soon get weak that they are forced to take the little ones down to relieve them; even children of six years of age do much to relieve the burthen.

Knows it is bad to keep bairns from school, but every little helps; and even if there is no school nearer than two miles and it is a fearfu' road across the moor in summer, much more winter.

Coal-hewers are paid 4 1/2d. for each load of 2cwt., out of which they have to pay the bearers whom they hire.

Each collier has his place on the coal-hill, and gets his money just as the sale comes in, which makes the pay uncertain.

No.118. Jesse Coutte, 13 years old, coal-bearer:
I was born at Coaly Burn. Mother had me registered at West Linton. I have wrought below six years. Mother took me first down: she does not work not work now, as she had a false birth (miscarriage), from the oppression of sore work, and she has never been hersel since. Father has been idle 12 weeks, from a hurt in the arm; it was done by the wedge cutting the sinews open: he receives 5s. a-week from a friendly society, but they mean to knock him down to 2s. 6d. after next Saturday.

Sister Helen is wrought; she is 11 years past, and been four years below, and Charlotte is nine years old, and been two years at the work. Mother has 10 children. Sisters and I can read in the Testament: never did anything at the writing; cannot sew. Is very much fatigued with the work; would like to run away from it. God made the world and me. Jesus is God. Don't know how many days in the year; thinks there are 10 or 12 months; can't say what they call them. Sin is cursing and swearing. Twelve pennies are in a shilling, can't say how many there are in two shillings. Reads very little.

No.119. Mary Neilson, 10 years old, coal-bearer:
When sister Margaret, who is nine years old works, we make 10 to 15 rakes each; when she is away I am forced to make 20. Sister was six years old when she first wrought, and I went down at that age.

I carry half a load now; half a load is cwt. and it is no easy work; it often causes me to fall asleep below when there is nothing to gang with.

Mother does not work now; has been very weak from two false births and obliged to stay away.

[Reads a little: knows scarcely any of the questions but very acute at weights. Would acquire knowledge quickly from natural talent. Rather short-sighted. If well dressed would vie with any child in Scotland in point of beauty.]

No.120. Rev. A. M. Forrester, Minister of West Linton, Peebleshire:
There is a great desire among the labouring people generally as to the education of their children. In visiting the colliers of Coaly Burn last week I had a very numerous attendance, and was much pleased with the appearance the children made and they asked me to give them Bibles.

The colliers at Coaly Burn have been residents for a long period, and I consider them attentive to their duties in sending their children to school. Since the commencement of the Harlaw Muir Coal Work, about 10 years since, there have been colliers who have been not so attentive. It must be admitted that the schools are far away from the mines and houses of the colliers, but the works of Harlaw Muir and Coaly Burn are on too small a scale to have a resident schoolmaster; but I find the old ones teach the young ones.

I am aware that in the collieries children go to continuous employments at very early age, but they are sent to school now very young, and again put to school either in winter or summer, as may be most convenient. The removal is hurtful, in this respect - that in the interval they have generally forgot what they have been previously taught.